When using the Notes and Bibliography Style of CMS, in-text citations take the form of notes which include a superscripted note number in the text, either at the end of a sentence or clause,1 and a note which has the citation. For footnotes this citation will appear at the bottom of the page and for endnotes this citation will be listed at the end of the paper.
Here is what a footnote looks like:
Footnotes will look similar to their reference counterpart in your bibliography, however, the author's names are listed first name last name and punctuation might vary slightly. Footnote examples are given below bibliography entries for each format type.
The shortened footnote is used when you have already fully cited source in a previous footnote:
If you are citing the same source in an immediately preceding note, you use Ibid to indicate all the parts are identical:
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Edited by First Name Last Name. City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication.
Barker, Heidi Bulmahn. Teachers and the Reform of Elementary Science: Stories of Conversation and Personal Process. Edited by Ian Westbury and Margery D. Osborne. Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing, 2004.
1. Heidi Bulmahn Barker, Teachers and the Reform of Elementary Science: Stories of Conversation and Personal Process, eds. Ian Westbury & Margery D. Osborne (Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing, 2004), 67.
3. Barker, Teachers and the Reform of Elementary Science, 14.
|Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary||
NOTE: According to the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (see 14.233), online reference works (dictionaries and encyclopedias) are normally cited in the notes and not in the bibliography.
Source (italicize if dictionary or encyclopedia), s.v. "word," Date of Access, URL.
1. Merriam-Webster, s.v. "app (n.)," accessed April 6, 2016, http://www.meriam-webster.com/dictionary/app.
2. Wikipedia, s.v. "Stevie Nicks," last modified April 2, 2016, 18:30, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stevie_Nicks. *
3. Grove Music Online, s.v. "Toscanini, Arturo," by David Cairns, accessed April 6, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/28197.
*Since Wikipedia is updated so often, you want to include when the article was last modified when you accessed it.
|Print Encyclopedia or Dictionary||
NOTE: According to the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (see 14.232), well-known reference books, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited just in the notes and not in the bibliography. Majority of other reference works are also cited in to the bibliography with their full publication details.
Author Last Name, First Name (if applicable). Title of Work. Edition. Volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication.
Bibliography Entry #1:
Diccionario de historia de Venezuela. 2nd ed. 4 vols. Caracas: Fundación Polar, 1997.
Bibliography Entry #2:
Garner, Bryan A. Garner's Modern English Usage. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.
1. Dictionary of American Biography (1937), s.v. "Wadsworth, Jeremiah."
2. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed. (1980), s.v. "salvation."