Below are PDF versions of the citation handouts we keep at the Information Desk:
The following are a list of the different ways you can format your in-text citation:
Author’s name in text (no page number):
Cassell and Jenkins (2000) compared reaction times. . .
Author’s name in reference (no page number):
In a recent study of reaction times (Cassell & Jenkins, 2000). . .
Author’s name in text (page number):
According to Cuno (2008), within the last few years “archaeologists have lobbied for national and international laws, treaties, and conventions to prohibit the international movement of antiquities” (p. 1).
Author’s name in reference (page number):
The argument runs that, “The term 'Czechoslovak' had become a rich source of contention almost immediately after the state's formation” (Innes, 2001, p. 16).
Two authors in reference:
A study conducted on a college campus concluded that therapy dogs help to reduce stress in students during final examinations (Smith & Jones, 2016).
Three or more authors in reference:
Dehydration resulting from caffeine can cause severe complications from the body (Adams et al., 2012).
No known author:
A similar study was conducted around students learning how to format a research paper ("Using APA," 2019).
No known author or date:
In another study of students and research decision, it was discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d).
What is Considered to be a Long Quotation?
If the quotation you use in your paper is longer than 3 lines, then it is considered to be a long quotation (also known as a "block quote").
Rules for Long Quotations
There are 4 basic rules that apply to long quotations:
Example of a Long Quotation
In order for libraries to grow and adapt to new generations, it is vital to experiment with programming and services:
The idea of experimentation is to try something new. On occasion, ideas do not always work out the way we hope, and that's okay. Assessment helps determine if an experiment is worth supporting permanently. We consider that iPad experiment at the Art & Architecture Library a failure. The few students who tried the apps, like the app Procreate, but there was not enough evidence for us to continue offering it. Even though we call it a failure, it was not a waste of time. We learned that students are interested in digital art platforms but prefer to use apps on their personal devices. (Copper, 2020, p. 79)
|Chapter or other part of an Edited Book||
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (edition, pages of chapter). Publisher.
NOTE: Author should be the person who wrote the CHAPTER you are citing from.
Jelly, S. (1985). Helping children raise questions — and answering them. In W. Harlen (Ed.), Primary science: Taking the plunge: How to teach primary science more effectively (pp. 47-57). Heinemann Educational.
(Jelly, 1985, pp. 53)
(Laplace, 1814/1951, pp. 3)