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Syracuse University Libraries

Citation Styles: APA Books and eBooks

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Digital Guides

Below are PDF versions of the citation handouts we keep at the Information Desk:

In-Text Citations

The following are a list of the different ways you can format your in-text citation:

Author’s name in text (no page number):
Cassell and Jenkins (2000) compared reaction times. . .

Author’s name in reference (no page number):
In a recent study of reaction times (Cassell & Jenkins, 2000). . .

Author’s name in text (page number):
According to Cuno (2008), within the last few years “archaeologists have lobbied for national and international laws, treaties, and conventions to prohibit the international movement of antiquities” (p. 1).

Author’s name in reference (page number):
The argument runs that, “The term 'Czechoslovak' had become a rich source of contention almost immediately after the state's formation” (Innes, 2001, p. 16).

Two authors in reference:
A study conducted on a college campus concluded that therapy dogs help to reduce stress in students during final examinations (Smith & Jones, 2016).

Three or more authors in reference:
Dehydration resulting from caffeine can cause severe complications from the body (Adams et al., 2012).

No known author:
A similar study was conducted around students learning how to format a research paper ("Using APA," 2019).

  • Use an abbreviated version of the title of the page in quotation marks to substitute for the name of the author

No known author or date:
In another study of students and research decision, it was discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d).

  • Use the first few words from the title and the abbreviation n.d. ("no date")

Long Quotation Format

What is Considered to be a Long Quotation?

If the quotation you use in your paper is longer than 3 lines, then it is considered to be a long quotation (also known as a "block quote").

Rules for Long Quotations

There are 4 basic rules that apply to long quotations:

  1. Place a colon at the end of the sentence that you write in order to introduce your long quotation.
  2. Start the long quotation on a new line in your Word document. Indent the long quotation 0.5 inches from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text.
  3. Do not put quotation marks (" ") around your long quotation.
  4. Place the period at the end of the quotation before your in-text citation instead of after, like you would with regular quotations.

Example of a Long Quotation

In order for libraries to grow and adapt to new generations, it is vital to experiment with programming and services:

The idea of experimentation is to try something new. On occasion, ideas do not always work out the way we hope, and that's okay. Assessment helps determine if an experiment is worth supporting permanently. We consider that iPad experiment at the Art & Architecture Library a failure. The few students who tried the apps, like the app Procreate, but there was not enough evidence for us to continue offering it. Even though we call it a failure, it was not a waste of time. We learned that students are interested in digital art platforms but prefer to use apps on their personal devices. (Copper, 2020, p. 79)

Books and eBooks Citation

Print Book


Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of work: Subtitle. Publisher.


Noddings, N., & Brooks, L. (2017). Teaching controversial issues: The case for critical thinking and moral commitment in the classroom. Teachers College Press.

In-Text Citation:

(Noddings & Brooks, 2017, p. xx)

Edited Book


Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title: Subtitle. (A. A. Editor, Ed.). Publisher.


Wordsworth, W. (1958). Selected poems of William Wordsworth. (R. Sharrock, Ed.). The MacMillan Company.

In-Text Citation:

(Wordsworth, 1958, p. xx).

Chapter or other part of an Edited Book


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (edition, pages of chapter). Publisher.

NOTE: Author should be the person who wrote the CHAPTER you are citing from.


Jelly, S. (1985). Helping children raise questions — and answering them. In W. Harlen (Ed.), Primary science: Taking the plunge: How to teach primary science more effectively (pp. 47-57). Heinemann Educational.

In-Text Citation:

​(Jelly, 1985, pp. 53)

Translated Book


Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Date of Publication). Title of Book. (A. A. Last Name, Trans.; edition of book, if available). Publisher. (Original work publication date).


Laplace, P. S. (1951).  A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 1814).

In-Text Citation:

(Laplace, 1814/1951, pp. 3)

Electronic Book (eBook)


Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of work: Subtitle. Publisher. URL.


Perkins, A. G. (2019). Yale needs women: How the first group of girls rewrote the rules of an ivy league giant. Sourcebooks.

In-Text Citation:

(Perkins, 2019, p. xx)

Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary


Name of Encyclopedia or Dictionary. (n.d.). Word or phrase. In Encyclopedia or Dictionary title. Retrieval date, from


Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Intersectionality. In dictionary. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from

In-Text Citation:

When thinking the persistence of inequalities, it is better to think of them as overlapping or connected rather than isolated (Intersectionality, n.d.).

Print Encyclopedia or Dictionary


Author, A. A. (Year). Word. In Title of encyclopedia. (Volume number, page range). Publisher.


González, J. M. (2008). Container theory of language. In Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education. (Vol. 1, pp.171-173). SAGE Reference Publication.

In-Text Citation:

(González, 2008, p.171)

Sir Lewis is known to be in charge of a great household, or otherwise known as a princely estate (Major-domo, 1988).