Please view Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (MSSE) [opens in a new window] for detailed information in using the MSSE style.
The reference list shall be in alphabetic order (rather than in the order of citation) and numbered. There shall not be more than 40 references for original investigations. Review articles are limited to 75 references. All references shall appear in the text. The format for references is that which has been adopted by the United States National Library of Medicine [Patrias K. National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation. Bethesda (MD): The Library; 1991. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB91-182030.] and employed in Index Medicus. For those not included in Index Medicus, adhere to the form established by the American National Standard for Bibliographic References.
Examples of the types of references are as follows:
- Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988. 567 p.
- Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL. Physical activity and physical fitness as determinants of health and longevity. In: Bouchard C, Shephard RJ, Stephens T, Sutton JR, McPherson BD, editors. Exercise, Fitness, and Health. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1990. p. 33–48.
- Conference Proceedings—Matthie JR, Withers PO, Van Loan MD, Mayclin PL. Development of a commercial complex bio-impedance spectroscopic (CBIS) system for determining intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) volumes. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Electrical Bio-impedance; 1992 Jul 28-31: Kuopio (Finland). University of Kuopio; 1992. p. 203–5.
- Doctoral Dissertation—Crandall C. Alterations in human baroreceptor reflex regulation of blood pressure following 15 days of simulated microgravity exposure [dissertation]. Fort Worth (TX): University of North Texas; 1993. 100 p.
- Government Report—U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General; 2004. 436 p. Available from: U.S. GPO, Washington.
- Journal Article—Blair SN, Ellsworth NM, Haskell WL, Stern MP, Farguhar JW, Wood PD. Comparison of nutrient intake in middle-aged men and women runners and controls. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1981;13(5):310–5.
- E-Journal Article—Vickers AJ. Time course of muscle soreness following different types of exercise. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2001 May 31];2(5). Available from: https://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/2/5. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-2-5.
- Web site home page—American Heart Association Web site [Internet]. Dallas (TX): American Heart Association; [cited 2006 Jan 1]. Available from: https://www.heart.org/.
- Abstract—An abstract can be cited when it is the only source of information.
Note: In-text reference citations shall be baseline in parentheses, not superscripts [e.g., (14,15), not 14,15]. Personal Internet Web sites, Master of Science theses, personal communications, or other unpublished materials are not acceptable as references. All book references require page numbers. Journal abbreviations should follow the abbreviations of Index Medicus published by the Library of Congress. Use of et al.—if fewer than seven (7) authors are listed, all should be mentioned. When seven or more authors are named, list only the first three.