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Syracuse University Libraries

Selected Topics in Architecture: Black and African American Architects

These guides suggest specialized resources of interest to students seeking information related to selected diversity topics.

Pioneering Minority Architects

This resource guide was initially created as a topical booklist entitled Race and Diversity which was prepared for the Society of Architectural 

Historians by Barbara Opar, Helena Dean (SAH), Anna Curtis, Hannah Deichler, Dhvani Doshi and Julia Kazubowski. That list can be viewed at :

 Race and Diversity


Afro-American Bicentennial Corporation. Black Involvement in Architecture: Exhibit. Washington, D.C.: The Corporation, 1972.

Allison, Peter & Adam Lindemann. David Adjaye: A House for an Art Collector. New York, NY: Rizzoli, 2011.

Bankhead, Lester O. & Wesley H. Henderson. African-American Architects in Los Angeles: Lester O. Bankhead. Dissertation1992, Los Angeles, CA: Regents of the University of California, 1992.

Barber, Jean & Christopher Cortright. Focus Group, Profile of the Minority Architect” and Roundtable, Todays Minority Architect, A Major Force”: October 5-6, 1989, San Francisco, California. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Architects, 1990.

Bird, Betty & Nancy B. Schwartz. Thematic Study of Black Architects, Builders, and Developers in Washington, D.C.: Phase I. Washington, D.C.: United Planning Organization, 1993.

Brackstone, Deborah W. & Katherine C Broome. Paul Revere Williams: An Annotated Bibliography: Paul Revere Williams Project, Art Museum of the University of Memphis. Memphis, TN: University of Memphis, 2015.

Brown, Charles A. W.A. Rayfield. Pioneer Black Architect of Birmingham, Ala. Birmingham, AL: C.A. Brown, 1972.

Bauchum, Rosalind G. & James W. Bauchum. The Black Architect. Monticello, Ill.: Vance Bibliographies, 1982.

Carter, Stephen L. Directory of Black Landscape Architects: Students, Educators, Practitioners. Greensboro, NC: Black Landscape Architects Caucus, 1980.

Charles, Kelly J. African American Male Students of Architecture at Select HBCUs: Locus of Control, Self Efficacy and Triarchic Intelligence (Spring 2006-Spring 2007). 2007 Dissertation: Ph.D.; Baltimore, MD: Morgan State University, 2007.

Davis, Carolyn A. Design Diaspora: Black Architects & International Architecture 1970-90. Chicago, IL, n.p, 1993.

Dozier, Richard K. The Black Architectural Experience in America. Tuskegee, AL: Southern Center for Afro-American Architecture, 1980-1982.

Dozier, Richard K. Spaces and Places: A Photographic Exhibit Conveying the Contributions, Aspirations, and Aesthetic Values of Afro-Americans as Reflected in Architecture. 

Durough, Allen R. The Architectural Legacy of Wallace A. Rayfield: Pioneer Black Architect of Birmingham, Alabama. Tuscaloosa, AL.: University of Alabama Press, 2010.

Elmore, Mary E. McKissack and McKissack. 1943. Dissertation: B.S.; Nashville, TN: Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State College, 1943.

Enwezor, Okwui & Zoë Ryan. David Adjaye: Form, Heft, Material. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Ethridge, Harrison M. The Black Architects of Washington, D.C., 1900-Present. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 1979.

Fordham, Monroe. Coles Papers (Robert T.). Buffalo, NY: Monroe Fordham Regional History Center, Buffalo State College, 2005.

Fry, Louis E. Louis Edwin Fry, Sr.: His Life and His Architecture. n.p.: L.E. Fry, 1981.

Grant, Bradford C. & Dennis A. Mann. The Professional Status of African American Architects. Cincinnati, Ohio: Center for the Study of Practice, 1996.

Harden, Ronald. Untold Architectural Black History of Tampa, Florida: My 36-Year Architecture Career in Tampa. Durham, CT: Eloquent Books, 2010.

Henderson, Wesley H. Two Case Studies of African-American ArchitectsCareers in Los Angeles, 1890-1945: Paul R. Williams, FAIA and James H. Garrott, AIA. 1992 Dissertation: Ph. D.; University of California, Los Angeles, 1992.

Hudson, Karen E. Paul R. Williams, Architect: A Legacy of Style. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.

Hudson, Karen E. Paul R. Williams: Classic Hollywood Style. New York: Rizzoli, 2012.

Johnson, Beth A. The Pedagogy of Booker T. Washington Embodied in Architecture. 2006 Dissertation: M.S.; School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 2006.

Kaplan, Victoria. Structural Inequality: Black Architects in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

King, William E. Julian Abele and the Design of Duke University. Durham, NC: Duke University, 2017.

Komes, Linda. The Life and Legacy of W. Sidney Pittman. Charlottesville, VA: School of Architecture, University of Virginia, 1992.

Kriz, Mikael D. Walter T. Bailey and the African American Patron. 2002 Dissertation: M.A.; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2002.

Lee, Kermit J., Jr. Kermit J. Lee, Jr. Papers, circa 1985-1995. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University School of Architecture. 1980-1990.

Lyons, Kelly S. Dream Builder: The Story of Architect Philip Freelon. New York: Lee & Low Books, 2020.

Michelson, Richard & Eric Velasquez. Twice as Good: The Story of William Powell and Clearview, the Only Golf Course Designed, Built and Owned by an African-American. Ann Arbor, MI: Sleeping Bear Press, 2011.

Mitchell, Melvin L. The Crisis of the African-American Architect: Conflicting Cultures of Architecture and Black Power. New York: Writers Advantage, 2003.

Mitchell, Melvin Jr. African American Architects: Embracing Culture and Building Urban Communities. n.p.: Katherine Williams, 2020.

Neher, Leslie I. & Shutt, Betty D. Samuel M. Plato, 1882-1957: A Collection of Accomplishments. Gas City, IN: L.I. Neher, 1997.

Parker, Christine. Out of the Shadows: The Legacy of Buffalos First African American Architect. Buffalo, NY: Preservation Buffalo Niagara, 2017.

Parker, Christine. Through These Gates: Buffalo's First African American Architect, John Edmonston Brent- 1889-1962. State University of New York College at Buffalo, 2016.

Swan, Vashti. Biographical Directory of Black American Architects. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati, College of Architecture, Art, and Planning, 1988.

Taylor, David V.; Paul C Larson.; Cap Wigington. Cap Wigington: An Architectural Legacy in Ice and Stone. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2001.

Travis, Jack. American Black Architects. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 1991.

Weiss, Ellen. An Annotated Bibliography on African-American Architects and Builders. Philadelphia, PA: Society of Architectural Historians, 1993.

Weiss, Ellen. Robert R. Taylor and Tuskegee: An African American Architect Designs for Booker T. Washington. Montgomery, Alabama: New South Books, 2012.

Wilkins, Craig L. Diversity Among Architects: From Margin to Center. New York: Routledge, 2016.

Williams, Douglas A. David A. Williston: The First Professional African American Landscape Architect and his Campus Designs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities. 2002 Dissertation: M.L.A.; Cornell University, 2002.

Williams, John D & Wesley H. Henderson. African-American Architects of Los Angeles Oral History Transcript, 1990-1992: John D. Williams. Los Angeles, CA: Oral History Program, University of California, Los Angeles, 1997.

Williams, Paul R. Paul R. Williams: A Collection of House Plans. Santa Monica: Hennessey & Ingalls, 2006.

Wilson, Dreck S. African American Architects: A Biographical Dictionary, 1865-1945. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Wilson, Dreck S. Julian Abele: Architect and the Beaux Arts. New York: Routledge, 2019.

Wilson, John Louis Jr. FAIA, Columbia Universitys First African-American Graduate of Architecture. New York, NY: Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, 1990.

Designing for Community: The Cultural, Civic, and Collegiate Work of Phil Freelon. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University African American Cultural Center, 2016.

Looking Beneath the Surface: Discovering Third World Architects and Artists and their Works. Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley, College of Environmental Design, 1991.

Philadelphias African American Architects 1995: January 4-January 29, 1995. Philadelphia, PA: The Museum, 1995.

Writers’Program (New York, N.Y.). Negro Inventors, Architects and Engineers: Research Studies. New York, NY, 1936-1938.

Race (Concept)


Anthony, Kathryn H. “Designing for Diversity: Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in the Architectural Profession.” Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001.

Barton, Craig E., ed. Sites of Memory: Perspectives on Architecture and Race. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2001.

Brown, Adrienne. The Black Skyscraper: Architecture and the Perception of Race. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2017.

Brown, Adrienne, and Valerie Smith. Race and Real Estate. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Crenshaw, Kimberle, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas, eds. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed the Movement. New York: New Press, 1995.

Da Silva, Denise Ferreira. Toward a Global Idea of Race. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Delgado, Richard, and Jean Stefancic. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Fields, Darell Wayne. Architecture in Black: Theory, Space, and Appearance. Updated edition. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015.

Gleason, William. Sites Unseen: Architecture, Race, and American Literature. New York: New York University Press, 2011.

Gooden, Mario. Dark Space: Architecture, Representation, Black Identity. New York: Columbia Books on Architecture and the City, 2016.

Harris, Dianne. Little White House: How the Postwar Home Constructed Race in America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Lokko, Lesley Naa Norle, and Araya Asgedom, eds. White Papers, Black Marks: Architecture, Race, Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Schein, Richard, ed. Landscape and Race in the United States. London: Routledge, 2006.

Turner, Marci. The Manifestation of Architectures Black Identity: Piecing Together Form, Space, and Order. 2002 Dissertation: B.A.; Hampton University, 2002.

Upton, Dell. What Can and Can't Be Said: Race, Uplift and Monument Building in the Contemporary South. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Valls, Andrew, ed. Race and Racism Modern Philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.

Wilkins Craig L. The Aesthetics of Equity: Notes on Race, Space, Architecture, and Music. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Journals & Chapters

Anderson, Elijah. “The Iconic Ghetto and the Stigma of Blackness.” Harvard Design Magazine, no. 42 (Spring-Summer 2016), 94-96.

Bates, Niya. Race & Architectural History: An Appeal.” Arris: Journal of the Southeast Chapter of the Society of Architectural Historians 27, (2016), 53-57.

Baydar, Gulsum. The Cultural Burden of Architecture.” Journal of Architectural Education 57, no. 4 (2004), 19-27.

Brown, Adrienne. “The Architecture of Racial Phenomena.” Log, no. 42 (Winter/Spring 2018), 27-33.

Brown, Tiffany D. Opinion: Dismantle and Rebuild.” Architect (Washington, D.C.) 109, no. 7 (July 2020), 13.

Davis, Charles L., II. “Blackness in Practice: Toward an Architectural Phenomenology of Blackness.” Log, no. 42 (Winter/Spring 2018), 43-54.

Gerfen, Katie. “Editorial: Time to Stand Up.” Architect 109, no. 7 (July 2020), 80.

Harris, Dianne. Seeing the Invisible: Reexamining Race and Vernacular Architecture.” Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture 13, no. 2 (2006-2007), 96-105.

Harriss, Harriet. “Opinion: Only Equity Can Beget Equity.” Architect (Washington, D.C.) 109, no. 2 (Feb. 2020), 30.

Hooks, Bell. Black Vernacular: Architecture as Cultural Practice.” Art on My Mind: Visual Politics. (1995), 145-151.

Hunter, Marcus A.,  Mary Pattillo,  et al. Black Placemaking: Celebration, Play, and Poetry.” Theory, Culture & Society 33, no. 7-8 (Dec. 2016), 31-56.

Lipsitz, George. The Racialization of Space and the Spatialization of Race: Theorizing the Hidden Architecture of Landscape.” Landscape Journal 26, no. 1 (2007), 10-23.

Lou, Cary and Elizabeth Kneebone. Suburban- and Poor: the Changing Landscape of Race and Poverty in the U.S.” Planning 80, no. 6 (June 2014), 16-21.

McGuigan, Cathleen. “Architecture and The History of Race. The Story of the African American Experience can be Powerfully Reflected in the Environment.” Architectural Record 204, no. 10 (Oct. 2016), 21.

McGuigan, Cathleen. “Enough is Enough: Architects Must Respond To The Ongoing Crisis of Racism in America.” Architectural Record 208, no. 7 (July 2002), 10.

Piven, Francis Fox. 50 Years and Fighting: the Origins and Legacy of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.” Planning 80, no. 6 (June 2014), 10-15.

Rossi, Michael. Ten Short Notes on Color, Anthropology, and Makeup.” Grey Room, no. 76 (Summer 2019), 6-23.

Rusk, David. “An Exchange with David Rusk.” Preservation: the magazine of the National Trust. For Historic Preservation 58, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 2006), 20.

Sitz, Miriam. Designers Confront Structural Racism in the Profession.” Architectural Record 208, no. 7 (July 2020), 13-14.

Sutton, Sharon E. “What does race have to do with Architectural Education?: Sharon Sutton on why Columbia University’s story should matter to students — and architects — today.” Architect 107, no. 5 (May 2018), 95-96.

Torma, Carolyn. Zoning and Housing Segregation [United States].” Planning 85, no. 2 (Feb. 2019), 37.

Travis, Jack. An Interior of Inclusion or the Illusion of Inclusion.” Journal of Interior Design 43, no. 3 (2018), 3-7.

Waite, Richard; Ike Obanye; Benjamin C. Derbyshire. “Race Diversity Survey: Is Architecture in Denial?” Architects’ Journal 245, no. 9 (May 2018), 6-10.

West, Cornel. A Note on Race and Architecture.” Keeping Faith: Philosophy and Race in America, (1993), 45-54.

Online Display

Social Justice


Armborst, Tobias. The Arsenal of Exclusion & Inclusion. New York: Actar Publishers, 2017.

Ballard, Andre. Architecure and the African American Community: An Architects Anthology of Social Justice Research. Saarbrüken, Germany: Academic Pub., 2012.

Bell, Lee Anne. Storytelling for Social Justice: Connecting Narrative and the Arts in Antiracist Teaching. New York, NY: Routledge, 2010.

Black Environmental Design Student. Community Visions: Empowerment Through Design. Berkley, CA: The Association, 1992.

Coles, Robert T.; William H. Siener.; Sylvia Coles. Architecture + Advocacy. Buffalo, NY: Buffalo Arts, 2016.

Ellen, Ingrid. The Dream Revisited: Contemporary Debates About Housing, Segregation, and Opportunity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019.

García, David G. Strategies of Segregation: Race, Residence, and the Struggle for Educational Equality. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2018.

Joseph-Salisbury, Remi. The Fire Now: Anti-Racist Scholarship in Times of Explicit Racial Violence. London, UK: Zed Books, 2018.

Lipsitz, George. How Racism Takes Place. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2011.

Newman, David M. Sociology, Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life: Readings. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 2019.

Olwig, Kenneth R. The Meanings of Landscape: Essays on Place, Space, Environment and Justice. Milton: Routledge, 2019.

Sutton, Sharon E. The Paradox of Urban Space: Inequality and Transformation in Marginalized Communities. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Tauke, Beth & Smith, Korydon. Diversity and Design: Understanding Hidden Consequences. New York: Routledge, 2016.

Weisman, Leslie. Discrimination by Design: A Feminist Critique of the Man-Made Environment. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.


Agyeman, Julian. “Black People in a White Landscape: Social and Environmental Justice.” Built Environment 16, no. 3 (1990), 232-236.

Baird, Melissa F. “Heritage, Human Rights, and Social Justice.” Heritage & Society 7, no. 2 (Nov. 2014), 139-155.

Bates, William J. Social Justice by Design: Our Legacy Depends on Our Ability to Help Close Divides Through the Power of Design [Presidents Column].” Architect (Washington, D.C.) 108, no. 6 (June 2019), 70.

Beatley, Timothy. Altruism, Ethics, and Planning.” Planning 83, no. 6 (June 2017), 47-48.

Blander, Akiva. Planning for (In)Justice: for Toni Griffin and her Just City Lab, Equitable Cities Listen and Respond to the Diverse Needs of Their Different Communities.” Metropolis 39, no. 1 (July/Aug. 2019), 75-76.

Bullard, Robert D. “Equity, Unnatural Man Made Disasters, and Race: Why Environmental Justice Matters.” Research in Social Problems & Public Policy 15, (2008), 51-58.

Currey, Mason. Laura Kurgan & Sarah Williams: Using Sophisticated Mapping Technology, These Information Designers Uncover Hidden Data to Expose Social Justice.” Metropolis 31, no. 6 (Jan. 2012), 68-69.

Day, Kristen. Active Living and Social Justice: Planning for Physical Activity in Low-Income, Black, and Latino Communities.” Journal of the American Planning Association 72, no. 1 (Winter 2006), 88-89.

Diker, Nazire & Asuman Tükün. “Social Justice for Disabled people.” ArchNet- IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research 7, no. 2 (2013), 221-243.

Fredrick, Jane. “A Tipping Point for Systemic Injustice: We Can No Longer Be Complacent.” Architect 109, no. 7 (July 2020), 46.

Graham, Leigh. Razing Lafitte: Defending Public Housing from a Hostile State.” Journal of the American Planning Association 78, no. 4 (2012), 466-480.

Marcuse, Peter. “Density and Social Justice: Is There a Relationship. “ Columbia Documents of Architecture and Theory 3, (Dec 1993), 59-87.

Martens, Karel. Basing Transport Planning on Principles of Social Justice.” Berkeley Planning Journal 19, no. 1 (2006), 1-17.

Martin, Frank Edgerton. “A Diverse Education: A Historically Black University connects Urban Ecology and Social Justice.” Landscape Architecture 99, no. 12 (Dec. 2009), 40-51.

O’Donnell, Kathleen M. “In Its 10th Year, Architecture & Design Film Festival Emphasizes Social Justice.” Architect 108, no. 5 (May 2019), 161-162.

Page, Max & Marla Miller. “Bending the Future Historic Preservation.” History News 72, no. 4 (Fall 2017), 22-27.

Pedwell, Carolyn. “Economies of Empathy: Obama, Neoliberalism, and Social Justice.” Environment and Planning Design, Society & Space 30, no. 2 (2012), 280-297.

Saldanha, Arun. Reontologising Race: The Machinic Geography of Phenotype.” Environment & Planning D: Society and Space 24, (2006), 9-24.

Sandoval, Gerardo. Network Power for Social Change: Grassroots Organizing Efforts Via Information Technologies in Californias Central Valley.” Berkeley Planning Journal 18, no. 1 (2005), 3-33.

Sheng, Rosa. “Opinion: Does Design Perpetuate Injustice.” Architect 107, no. 11 (Nov. 2018), 54.

Thomas, June Manning. “Socially Responsible Practice: The Battle to Reshape the American Institute of Planners.” Journal of Planning History 17, no. 4 (Nov. 2019), 258-281.

Volner, Ian. Jonathan F.P. Rose: He Combines a Keen Feel for the Housing Market with a Genuine Commitment to Social Justice, Good Urbanism, and Green Building.” Metropolis 33, no. 6 (Jan. 2014), 50-53, 87.

Winkler, Tanja. "Between Economic and Social Justice: Exposing the Ethico-politics of Planning.” Cities 29, no. 3 (June 2012), 166-173.


Architects and Designers Declare that “Black Lives Matter” and Call for Racial Justice After George Floyd’s Death:

James Baldwin vs. William F. Buckley: A Legendary Debate from 1965:

Knowing Your History & Teaching Social Justice:

Statement and Resources on Race and Architecture:

Periodical Articles

Adams, Michael. “A Legacy of Shadows.” Progressive Architecture 72, no. 2 (Feb. 1991), 85-87.

Bond, J. Max. “The Black Architect’s Experience.” Architectural Record 180, no. 6 (June 1992), 60-61.

Bond, J. Max. “Still Here: Three Architects of Afro-America: Julian Francis Abele, Hilyard Robinson, and Paul R. Williams.” Harvard Design Magazine, (Summer 1997), 48-53.

Coles, Robert T.Black Architects, An Endangered Species.” Journal of Architectural Education 43, no. 1. (Fall 1989), 60-62.

Collyer, Stanley. “Allison Williams of Perkins and Will.” Competitions 19, no. 2 (Summer 2009), 40-53.

Cooke, Julian. Architecture with Authority: Lessons from Gando, Burkina Faso.” Architecture South Africa: Journal of the South African Institute of Architects, no.70. (Nov/Dec 2014), 34-41.

Cramer, Ned. “Architecture, Equity & Activism: 1968 to Now.” Architect 107, no. 5 (May 2018), 106-155.

Diabaté, Issa. Toward a Local Modernity in Africa: Diébédo Francis Kere’s Center for Earth Architecture.” Harvard Design Magazine, no.35 (Fall-Winter 2012), 160-163

Dowdell, Kimberly & Mabel O. Wilson. “A Mover and a Shaker.” Metropolis 40, no. 4 (May 2020), 88-91.

Fernàndez-Galiano, Luis. Francis Kéré: Practical Aesthetics.” AV Monografías, no.201 (2018), 1-118.

Fernàndez-Galiano, Luis. Kéré Desde España: Figuring Francis.AV Monografías, no.201 (2018), 114-117.

Fernàndez-Galiano, Luis. La Belleza Necesaria = Necessary Beauty: [Francis Kéré]. AV Monografías, no.201 (2018), 2-3.

Fixen, Anna. “Paul Revere Williams, Unsung Hero.” Architectural Record 205, no. 1 (Jan. 2017), 21.

Fox, Stephen. John S. Chase, FAIA (1925-2012).” Texas Architect 62, no. 4 (July-Aug. 2012), 8.

Freeman, Allen. “Architect/Planner Discuss New Role as Charlotte’s Major.” Architecture: the AIA journal 73, no. 2 (Feb. 1984), 30, 36-39.

Gantt, Harvey. “The Architect of the New Public Realm.” Architecture California, 17, no. 1 (May 1995), 55-58.

Kéré, Diébedo F. & José Forjaz. Public Projects for Future of Africa.” Space, no. 501 (Aug. 2008), 92-125.

Lowenstein, Oliver. Meet: Kéré Architecture.” Blueprint (London, England), no. 352 (May/June 2017), 25.

Mays, Vernon. “Mr. Williams.” Architect (Washington, D.C.) 99, no. 9 (Sept. 2010), 74-79.

McKnight, Jenna M. Bringing it all Back Home: a Firsthand Look at How Diébédo Francis ré has Used His Architecture to Transform His Rural Village.” Architectural Record 202, no. 6 (June 2014), 106-108, 110.  

Nava, Ilaria.Uomo, Natura e Materia: Francis Kéré è Larchitetto del Momento.Domus, no. 1016 (Sept. 2017), 38-43.

Pemberton, Gayle. Against the Odds: A Granddaughter Cherishes the Life and Work of a Distinguished Black Architect of St. Paul [Clarence Wesley Wigington]. Preservation: the Magazine of the National Trust for Historic Preservation 55, no. 2 (Mar-Apr. 2003), 44-47.

Pittel, Christine. “A Class Act: Nobody Did Elegance Better than Architect Paul R. Williams…” House Beautiful 146, no. 2 (Feb. 2004), 44, 46, 49.

Priest, Isabelle. Man for All Seasons: From a Burkina Faso Villiage to This Years Serpentine Pavillion is Quite a Trajectory.” RIBA Journal 124, no. 6 (June 2017), 84-85.

Sklarek, Norma M. “Conversation: Norma Sklarek, FAIA.” Architecture California 7, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1985), 22-23.

Sokol, David. “J. Max Bond Jr., Influential Architect Dies.” Architectural Record 197, no. 4 (Apr. 2009), 26.

Solomon, Nancy B. “Women in Corporate Firms: The Top Positions in Large Offices Aren’t Just for Men Anymore.” Architecture 80, no. 10 (Oct. 1991), 79-87.

Taylor, David. Clarence Wigington.Architecture Minnesota 25, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1999), 30-31, 60.

Weiss, Ellen. Cap Wigington: An Architectural Legacy in Ice and Stone [by] David Vassar Taylor, Paul Clifford Larson.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 61, no. 4 (Dec. 2002), 576-578.

Wessely, Heide. Francis Kéré: Radically Simple.” Detail (English ed.), no. 2 (Mar.-Apr. 2017), 8-10.

Wilson, John L. “John Louis Wilson Jr.” Oculus 52, no. 6 (Feb. 1990), 2.

Historical Background


Anthony, Carol C. The Earth, the City, and the Hidden Narrative of Race. New York: New Village Press, 2017.

Cheng, Irene; Charles L. Davis II; Mabel O. Wilson. Race and Modern Architecture: A Critical History from the Enlightenment to the Present. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2020.

Cooke, Sekou. Hip-Hop Architecture: History/Theory/Practice. London; New York, NY: Bloomsbury Visual Arts, 2021.

Cooke, Sekou. Towards a Hip-Hop Architecture. Syracuse University School of Architecture Event, 2015.

Davis II, Charles L. Building Character: The Racial Politics of Modern Architectural Style. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2019.

Ellis, Clifton, and Rebecca Ginsburg, eds. Cabin, Quarter, Plantation: Architecture and Landscapes of North American Slavery. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010.

Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Goldstein, Brian D. The Roots of Urban Renaissance: Gentrification and the Struggle over Harlem. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017.

McKittrick, Katherine and Clyde Woods, eds. Black Geographies and the Politics of Place. Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2007.

Vlach, John Michael. Back of the Big House: The Architecture of Plantation Slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Wellington, Paul. Black Built: History and Architecture in the Black Community. Lexington, KY, n.p., 2019.

Wilson, Mabel O. Negro Building: Black Americans in the World of Fairs and Museums. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

Journals & Chapters

Anthony, Carl. The Big House and the Slave Quarter: Prelude to the New Architecture.” Working Paper 3, (1975).

Anthony, Carl. The Big House and the Slave Quarters: Part I, prelude to New World Architecture.” Landscape 20, no. 3 (Spring 1976), 8-19.

Anthony, Carl. The Big House and the Slave Quarters: Part II, African Contributions to the New World.” Landscape 21, no. 1 (Autumn 1976), 9-15.

Cheng, Irene. Race and Architectural Geometry: Thomas Jeffersons Octagons.” J19: The Journal of Nineteenth-Century Americanists 3, no. 1 (Spring 2015), 121-130.

Du, Bois, W.E.B. The Conservation of Races.” The Souls of Black Fold. (1999).

Nelson, Louis. The Architectures of Black Identity: Buildings, Slavery and Freedom in the Caribbean and the American South.” Winterthur Portfolio 45, no. 2 & 3 (2011), 177-193.

Upton, Dell. White and Black Landscapes in Eighteenth-Century Virginia.” Places 2, no. 2 (1984), 59-72.

Vlach, John Michael. The Shotgun House: An African Architectural Legacy.” Common Places: Readings in American Vernacular Architecture, (1986), 58-78.

Weyeneth, Robert R. “The Architecture of Racial Segregation: The Challenges of Preserving the Problematical Past.” The Public Historian 27, no. 4 (Fall 2005), 11-44.

Wilson, Mabel O. Dancing in the Dark: The Inscription of Blackness in Le Corbusiers Radiant City.” Places Through the Body (1998), 133-52.

Wright, Gwendolyn. The Big Houseand the Slave Quarters.” Building the Dream: A Social History of Housing in America, (1981), 41-57.

Teaching Race


Arday, Jason. Dismantling Race in Higher Education: Racism, Whiteness, and Decolonizing the Academy. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

Bell, Lee Anne. Storytelling for Social Justice: Connecting Narrative and the Arts in Antiracist Teaching. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Bose, Mallika. Community MATTEers: Service-Learning in Engaged Design and Planning. London; New York: Routledge, 2014.

Branche, Jerome & John W. Mullennix. Diversity Across the Curriculum: A Guide for Faculty in Higher Education. San Francisco, CA: Anker Publishing, 2007.

Sartor, Curtis, J. Jr. Strategies for Attracting African Americans to Schools of Architecture and Environmental Design. 2002 Dissertation: Ph. D.; Union Institute and University, 2002.

Shrivastava, Saurabh. Solutions Architect's Handbook: Kick-start Your Solutions Architect Career by Learning Architecture Design Principles and Strategies. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 1991.

Strunk, Kamden K. Research Methods for Social Justice and Equity in Education. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.

Walker, Maureen. When Getting Along is Not Enough: Reconstructing Race in Our Lives and Relationships. New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 2019.


Broches, Paul. “Social Content in Teaching and Design.” Journal of Architectural Edcuation 35, no. 1 (Fall 1981), 51-56.

Burgos Jr., Adrian. Teaching Migration, Race, and Place: A U.S. Latino Historians Perspective.” Journal of American Ethnic History 28, no. 2 (Winter 2009), 65-70.

Chu, Jonathan M., The Risks and Rewards of Teaching Race.” History Teacher 37, no. 4 (Aug. 2004), 484-493.

Eden, Jason. Answers to the Question: Who Developed Race?’” History Teacher 44, no. 2 (Feb. 2011), 169-177.

Duffy, John. “Teaching for Critical Literacy and Racial Justice.” Democracy & Education 17, no. 3 (2008). 

Helms, Janet E.; La Loya Shakes Malone; Kevin Henze. First Annual Diversity Challenge: How to Survive Teaching Courses on Race and Culture.” Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development 31, no. 1 (Jan. 2003), 3-11.

Irwin, Ryan. “Mapping Race: Historicizing the History of the Color-Line.” History Compass 8, no. 9 (Sept. 2010), 984-999.

Keddy, Karen. “Safety is just a thing men take for granter”:Teaching a Spatial Vocabulary of Equality to Architecture Students.” Atlantis: Critical Studies in Gender, Culture & Social Justice, (2015), 39-53.

Lee, Najuana. Culturally Responsive Teaching for 21st-Century Art Education: Examining Race in a Studio Art Experience.” Art Education 65, no. 5 (Sept. 2021), 48-53.

Li-Ching, Ho., Theresa Alviar-Martin., Enrique Leviste. “’There is Space, and There are Limits: The Challenge of Teaching Controversial Topics in an Illiberal Democracy.” Teachers College Record 116, no. 5 (May 2014), 1-28.

Lung-Amam, Willow; Stacy A. Harwood; Gerardo F. Sandoval, et al. “Teaching Equity and Advocacy Planning in a Multicultural ‘Post Racial’ World.” Journal of Planning Education and Research 35, no. 3 (Mar. 2015), 337-342.

McClain, Larry. A Whiter Shade of Pale: Teaching Race in the Midwest.” Midwest Quarterly 49, no. 3 (Spring 2008), 245-262.

Reddie, Anthony G. ”Teaching for Racial Justice.” Teaching Theology & Religion 13, no. 2 (Apr. 2010), 95.

Rosen, Hannah. Teaching Race and Reconstruction.” Journal of the Civil War Era 7, no. 1 (Mar. 2017), 67-95.

Sheehan, Rebecca., Jane Park., Jou Chin., et al. Translating Race: Teaching American Concepts and Histories of Race, Ethnicity, and Whiteness in Australia.” Australasian Journal of American Studies 38, no. 2 (Dec. 2019), 17-49.

Singh, Amritjit. “’Plottingthe Story of Race: Pedagogy Challenges in History and Literature.” Journal of American Ethnic History 32, no. 1 (Fall 2012), 7-23.

Ulysse, Baudelaire; Theodorea Berry; James C. Jupp. On the Elephant in the Room: Toward a Generative Politics of Place on Race in Academic Discourse.” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE) 29, no. 8 (Sept. 2016), 989-1001.

Varin, Vanessa. Are Race, Class, and Gender Dominating the Discipline?” Perspectives on History 51, no. 3 (Mar. 2013), 24.

Case Studies


Brown, Eliza S.; Holland, Daniel.; et al. African American Historic Sites Survey of Allegheny County. Harrisburg: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1994.

Cooke, Sekou. New Chocolate City: Hip-Hop Architecture in Washington, DC.” Syracuse University School of Architecture, 2017.

Drake, St. Claire, and Horace Clayton. Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1945.

Hood, Walter. Urban Diaries. Washington, D.C.: Spacemaker Press, 1997.

Judin, Hilton, and Ivan Vladislavic, eds. Blank--: Architecture, Apartheid and After. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 1998.

Karbula, James W.; Parsons, Mark; Seibel, Scott. The Intensive Survey of Area B of the Johnson State Office Building Project: African American Historic Occupation in Austin, Texas. Austin, TX: Hicks & Company, 2000.

Margoles, Conrad H. Space and Race: South African Native Townships” as Corruptions of Suburban Ideals for Political Ends. 1989 Dissertation: M.S.; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture, 1989.

Moore, Christopher P. & Dolkart, Andrew. Mother African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, 140-148 West 137th Street, Borough of Manhatten: Built 1923-25: Architect George W. Foster, Jr. New York, NY: Landmarks Preservation Commission, 1993.

Nieves, Angel David. An Architecture of Education: African American Women Design the New South. University of Rochester Press, 2018.

Nieves, Angel David. We Shall Independent Be: African American Place-Making and the Struggle to Claim Space in the United States. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 2008.

Reese, Carol M. & Michael Sorkin. New Orleans Under Reconstruction: The Crisis of Planning. London; Brooklyn, N.Y.: Verso Books, 2014.

Richardson, Selden. Built By Blacks: African American Architecture and Neighborhoods in Richmond. Charleston, SC: History Press, 2008.

Shabazz, Rashad. Spatializing Blackness: Architecture of Confinement and Black Masculinity in Chicago. Urbana University of Illinois Press, 2015.

Tonkin/Hoyne Architects. Proposal for Architectural Services: Assessment of the Old Colman School for Reuse as an African-American Cultural Heritage Center. Seattle, WA: The Firm, 1991.


Barron, Mark. Adequately Re-Housing Low Income Families: A Study of Class and Race in the Architecture of Public Housing, Marietta, Georgia, 1938-1941.” Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture 11, (2004), 54-70.

Bristol, Katherine. The Pruitt Igoe Myth.” Journal of Architectural Education 44, no. 3 (1991), 163-171.  

Cheng, Irene, Charles L. Davis II, and Mabel O. Wilson. Field Note: Racial Evidence.” Journal of Society of Architectural Education 76, no. 4 (Dec. 2017), 440-442.

Francis, Mark. “Practice Practice: Visionary Thought and Participatory Action in Environmental Design. Places. vol.12, no.2 (Winter 1999), p.60-68.

Gutman, Marta. Race, Place and Play: Robert Moses and the WPA Swimming Pools in New York City.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 67, no. 4 (Dec. 2008), 532-561.

Hartman, Chester W. "Up Close: Advocate Planner Chester Hartman.” Planners 67, no. 10 (Oct. 2001), 41.

Hock, Jennifer. Bulldozers, Busing and Boycotts: Urban Renewal and the Integrationist Project.” Journal of Urban History 39, no. 3 (May 2013), 433-453.

Lasner, Matthew Gordan. Segregation by Design: Race, Architecture, and the Enclosure of the Atlanta Apartment.” Journal of Urban History. (May 2017).

Martinez, Aurora. “California Mission Landscapes: Race, Memory and the Politics of Heritage.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 30, no. 3-4 (Fall 2017/Winter 2018), 202-206.

Merwood, Joanna. Western Architecture: Regionalism and Race in the Inland Architect.” Chicago Architecture: Histories, Revisions, Alternatives, (2005), 3-14.

Sitz, Miriam. “Designers Confront Structural Racism in the Profession.” Architectural Record 208, no. 7 (July 2020), 13-14.


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