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Syracuse University Libraries

Music Research Process

What's Your Citation Style?

Chicago Style 17th Edition (for humanities: music history, vocal pedagogy, music theory)

  • Chicago Manual of Style Online (library subscription) with full rules and examples.
  • Chicago Style Quick Guide (free site) with examples for common formats such as articles, books, book chapters
  • Examples of Bibliographic Citations in Music [Notes & Bibliography style] (free PDF) by the music librarian at Towson University. Includes examples for citing Grove, portions of sound recordings and scores, IMSLP, streaming audio, MP3s, YouTube. 
  • Citing Music Sources [Notes & Bibliography style] (free PDF) by the music librarian at University of Western Ontario. Includes examples for LPs, music manuscripts, score reprints, and other non-book formats!

APA (for social sciences: ethnomusicology, music education)


Citing Recordings in Chicago Style (Notes & Bibliography)


Composer last, first. Title of CD.  Ensemble Name. Conductor Name. With performer name (instrument), Performer Name (instrument). Recorded Month Year. Record Label Name 999 999999 999, Publication Year, format. Access date & link if streaming.

CD example:

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni. Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Sir Colin Davis. With Ingvar Wixell, Luigi Roni, Martina Arroyo, Stuart Burrows, Kiri Te Kanawa, et al. Recorded May 1973. Philips 422 541-2, 1991, 3 compact discs.

Streaming example, partial CD (from Naxos or Music Online):

Berlioz, Hector. "Harold En Italie (Harold in Italy), Symphony for Viola & Orchestra, Op. 16." On Berlioz - Orchestral Works. Philharmonia Orchestra. Sir Colin Davis and John Pritchard. With Yehudi Menuhin. Recorded January 8, 2007. Warner Music, 2007, Streaming Audio. Accessed September 15, 2016.​