The edited collection in this 2nd edition of the Sage Handbook of E-learning Research addresses the continued need for study and understanding of learning practices "formal, informal and non-formal" in contemporary technology-supported and technology-enabled education, work and social settings. In preparing this 2016 edition, we found much progress in research, unfolding in many new directions, each wrestling with how to analyze and represent learning in an era of continuing change in technologies, learning practices, and knowledge distribution. Research is rapidly expanding to consider further influences, e.g., how context, values, design choices, adoption patterns, and/or devices affect use, with an increasing interest in how these affect learning opportunities and practices. This volume takes stock of progress in e-learning research, highlighting advances as well as new directions in studies and methods for approaching and keeping up with changes in learning in an e-society. In particular, developments that have garnered attention and are addressed in chapters in this volume include games and gamification of learning, virtual worlds, MOOCs, big data and learning, e-learning practice in educational settings, libraries and museums, e-learning theory, literacy, methods, pedagogy, and a look to the future.