"Social Explorer is a detailed reference tool for current and historical Census data from 1790 to the present. Our tools allow you to explore Census data visually through the use of interactive data maps. You can also browse and download Census data in convenient formats for offline processing."
These can be useful in understanding how race was defined. You can also get to this information in a somewhat nicer format when you have created a map in Social Explorer by using the "Map Data Information" link in the map key. Instructions to "marshals", "assistants", "enumerators" and others who collected census data are also available.
A compendium of statistics from over 1,000 sources including data on social, behavioral, humanistic, and natural sciences including history, economics, government, finance, sociology, demography, education, law, natural resources, climate, religion, international migration, and trade. Topics ranging from migration and health to crime and the Confederate States of America are each placed in historical context by a recognized expert in the field. Permits users to graph individual tables and create customized tables and spreadsheets reflecting own particular areas of interest. Chapters are preceded by essays that introduce the quantitative history of their subject, provide a guide to the sources, and offer expert advice on the reliability of the data and the limits that might be placed on their interpretation. The data series in Historical Statistics of the United States do not have a uniform end date; instead, each table reports the data available at the time the contributor compiled the data. Many series in these volumes are continued on a regular basis with periodic updates and revisions by the agency, group, or individual responsible for the original data. Figures for many of the current series are presented in the Statistical Abstract of the United States, published annually by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
Temporal coverage. Contributors were asked to take the data series under their charge as far backward and forward in time as possible. They were also encouraged to include important lapsed series - those that begin and terminate in the past - because such series are sometimes available only in out-of-print documents. Most data series in Historical Statistics of the United States provide annual or decennial data spanning at least twenty years, with the main exceptions being for special topics (the colonial period and the Confederate States of America), for newly developed series providing the only data available to represent an important subject field, and for short series that served as important extensions of longer series.
Subnational data. Because of limitations of space, data are generally not shown for regions, states, or localities. The underlying sources sometimes provide data in finer geographical detail than shown here. Some tables provide data for U.S. census regions or divisions.
Two tables and one essay of interest
|Figure Pa-G School enrollment rates, by race: 1850–1994|
|Figure Pa-H Educational attainment, by sex, race, and ethnicity: 1940–1997|
Race and Ethnicity, Population, Vital Processes and Education
"In addition to our Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts, 1790 to 1990, for all geographic areas in the United States, there are three major sources of historical decennial census data" as pdfs.
"The first official Census was conducted in 1790 under Thomas Jefferson, who was the Secretary of State. That census, taken by U.S. marshals on horseback, counted 3.9 million inhabitants. Since that time, the decennial Census has been conducted every ten years, generally on April 1 in years ending in a zero."
Numeric Data Services Librarian's US Census Subject Guide- Paul Bern
Numeric Data Services Subject Guide- Paul Bern
Librarian's Subject Guide to Newspaper Databases- Michael Pasqualoni
Black Studies Center
Black Studies Center is a fully cross-searchable gateway to Black Studies including scholarly essays, recent periodicals, historical newspaper articles, literature, political science, sociology, philosophy, and religion. and much more.